Wikiversity:Learning/Fr

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Geographylogo.svg Wikiversity:Learning

Project proposal
Scope
About Wikiversity (draft)
Learning
Online Course
Ce que Wikiversité n'est pas
Wikiversity subcommittee
Moving Wikiversity forward
Wikiversity overview
Wikiversity in Wikibooks
(originally at the meta-wiki)

Enseigner - Apprendre - Discuter - Créer - Penser

Cette page a pour but de définir la méthode d'apprentissage au sein de la Wikiversité. Il y a un modèle basé sur l'« apprentissage par l'action » (learning by doing) qui semble le plus approprié dans un environnement Wiki où tout repose sur la participation.

Introduction[edit]

Le matériel pédagogique sera hébergé sur Wikiversity comme contenu indépendant — afin de pouvoir être utilisé dans des cours extérieurs à Wikiversity ou pour des études personnelles — mais il pourra aussi former la base d'un travail ultérieur, sur Wikiversity, d'autres projets Wikimedia ou ailleurs encore. De plus, l’utilisation de ce matériel au sein de la communauté constituera de fait une forme d'apprentissage communautaire. Cependant, le contenu hébergé par Wikiversity peut être utilisé de différentes manières, selon les personne concernées et le contexte d'utilisation.

Apprendre par l'expérience[edit]

  • Chacun participe ;
Il pourrait être intéressant de donner le rapport visites/édition des pages pour avoir une idée de la participation du lecteur.
  • Tout peut « faire partie » de l'environnement d'apprentissage, comme par exemple les expériences personnelles ;
  • Chacun participe à l'amélioration de l'organisation des enseignements (OdE) tout en l'utilisant ;
  • Possibilité d'interactivité dans l'enseignement (garder un journal)
D'autres formes ? Effectuer une simulation, résoudre/démontrer une équation, peindre un paysage, gagner de l'argent sur des parts de marché, présenter un cahier des charges, remplir les papiers administratifs d'une organisation caritative...

Apprendre par l'action[edit]

Le processus d'apprentissage effectif sur Wikiversity se fait principalement par l'expérience ou l'action. L'édition d'un wiki est une tâche active, un processus participatif, impliquant l'investissement (mise en forme, clarté) et la réflexion (discussion). Les activités d'enseignement su Wikiversity doivent s'axer sur leur potentiel wiki et rappeler que leurs bases sont la collaboration, le potentiel commun de ses auteurs et lecteurs. Voir Learning community, ou quelques idées pour les différents groupes ci-dessous.

Apprendre ensemble[edit]

Fondamentalement, l'apprentissage est considéré comme une conséquence de la participation à Wikiversity — on peut rapprocher cela d'un extrait de Lave et Wenger (1991) :

« Il y a un contraste marqué entre une théorie de l'apprentissage dans laquelle la discipline (dans un sens restreint, de répétition) est transmise au cours du processus d'enseignement, et une théorie dans laquelle l'apprentissage est sensé inclure tous les aspects de la discipline (incluant l'histoire, la naissance). » (p. 34-35)

En d'autres termes, c'est dans l'implication dans le processus de développement et de critique du contenu que se forment des groupes ou des communautés d'apprentissage, qui améliorent le contenu existant et donnent naissance à de nouveaux savoirs. Wikiversity est sensée faciliter l'apprentissage et, bien que centrée sur l'hébergement d'excellents matériels pédagogiques utilisables par tout lecteur individuellement, elle permet également la mise en place de telles communautés d'apprentissage.

Pensée critique[edit]

  • La possibilité de critiquer permet de valider l'information, de séparer les faits des croyances — y compris les votres ;
Media 113[5]
  • C'est également une capacité clé dans tous les domaines de la vie ;
[6]
  • Cette capacité dépasse le seul cadre de Wikiversity, puisqu'on est amené à en faire usage dans les écoles « traditionnelles », dans l'exercice de la citoyenneté, face aux médias...

Groupes d'apprentissage[edit]

(Ce qui suit fut déplacé depuis Wikiversity project proposal)

NdT : What follows still needs translation ! NdT : Ce qui suit doit encore être traduit !

  • A learning group on a subject might write lectures collectively using readings they have done (chosen collectively). These would be a way for the group to get down the major points that they have learned. It might look like lecture notes that students take in regular university classes. These notes act as a guide for users to then take the knowledge they have gained and apply it to improving Wikipedia articles and writing Wikibooks. On the other hand, the group might chose to meet in chat rooms. These learning groups might not use wiki format lectures.
  • They might, collectively, create assignments to get a better understanding of the material and to contribute to the Wikimedia community. One example would be to have the group set out to improve a Wikipedia entry based on information learned from the readings and discussions. Another, most likely as a final project once the group has completed it's learning objectives, is to write a Wikibook based on what is learned from the group. This wikibook could then be used in future groups who decide to study the same subject, and they might perhaps again improve upon the wikibook based on what they have learned (possibly using sources the first group did not).
    • For example, users could form reading groups. Imagine an assignment where users read book X for author Y. User A learns information that is useful for Wikipedia, and adds a citation to book X in some Wikipedia articles. User B quotes a sentence of book X in Wiktionary to demonstrate how to use a word. User C mentions book X or author Y in a Wikibook. User D learned much from reading book X, but never contributed to Wikipedia, Wiktionary, or Wikibooks using that knowledge. All four users benefited by using talk pages at Wikiversity to discuss confusing or interesting parts of book X.
    • Another example would be the query expedition. It might be organized as a pool of best guess with individuals or teams taking pro, con, strawman, idiot user, or other roles in the attack/defense/hybridization of the final answer to 1.) deliver to the query originator and 2.) evaluate per compare contrast procedures against initial WAGs for credit, glory and learning feedback. This product would obviously be posted somewhere safe from deletionists until other teams had a chance to evaluate how best to integrate the newly found and created knowledge artifacts, data and links into other Wikiversity resources such as the brainstorming stash or inevitable to do and wishlists.

See: Wikiversity Learning Projects

Citez vos sources[edit]

Certains projets Wikimedia, notamment Wikipedia, doivent citer leurs sources. Les groupes d'apprentissage de Wikiversity peuvent étudier de telles sources et enseigner à leurs utilisateurs comment les utiliser.

Par exemple, l'article anglais de Wikipedia « Effects of the automobile on societies » ne fournit aucune source externe. Même s'il le faisait, il ne devrait pas citer toutes les ressources externes faisant mention des effets des automobiles. Wikiversity peut tenter une liste des références externes (contenant les ISBN, URLs, et des liens vers Wikisource et Wikiquote) traitant de l'effet des automobiles sur les sociétés. Les utilisateurs de Wikiversity pourront étudier certaines et les commenter. Ils pourront également les utiliser pour Wikipedia.

Voir aussi : Service community et Citing Sources.

Assessment[edit]

One of the questions we will have to ask ourselves in providing for educational activities is: "how are we going to manage assessment?"

Consider the following quote:

"in order for students to become effective lifelong learners, they need also to be prepared to undertake assessment of the learning tasks they face throughout their lives" (Boud, 2000, p. 152)

We are developing a model of peer learning on Wikiversity - one in which people educate themselves and each other (through experience). A sustainable model of peer-learning involves giving people control over their learning - so that they, themselves, will be equipped with the skills they need in life, and also be able to apply those skills to help others in their learning. See also Keppell et al. (2006).

Other models of learning[edit]

  • "Acquisition and repetition of facts" (?)
  • Exposure to subtle models. Repeated exposure, daily (via many different individual models, people, personalities).
  • Sui generis. Creation from first principles. Rediscovering the work of others through personal insight.
  • Original Work—Learning by doing creatively.
  • Formal debate, analysis, or discussion with others. wikireason.net [7]
  • Essentialism
  • Progressiveism
  • Perennialism
  • Existentialism
  • Behaviourism

Other Learning Communities or Possibly Useful Research Results Online[edit]

TikiWiki is a CMS/Groupware/whatever and is used in several educative contexts. This website is dedicated to help that use and gather useful components to make it easier. --83.35.198.10 19:21, 10 September 2006 (UTC)
This software tool attempts to facilitate organized online classes by broadcasting messages and responses in rounds to all participants. Might be a way to tame wild wikis for courses which need or want more traditional accountable participation from registered members only. Downside, must initially complete "Who are the leaders here games and discussions" so management or facilitation authority is established and correctly setup in the software project for the group. Introducing leader point of failure for the group. user:lazyquasar
This article analyzes open content production and potential advantages to the university system of Africa. It identifies as essential transparent comprehensive information access and communications between all team members as essential. Cabals or secretive bilateral gossip or exchange of information is identified as destructive to the overall productivity and survival of the production team. 70.110.54.16 06:01, 13 February 2006 (UTC)
  • http://wikireason.net/wiki/Forum_Entrance This online learning community seeks formal debate, analysis, or discussion with others. Could be incredibly useful site for specific groups of Wikiversity participants for appropriate activities which could later be referenced or incorporated into Wikiversity materials or processes. "Wikiversity is not a debate club or chit chat student union .... wikireason exists for that! 8) 70.110.35.3 03:08, 2 March 2006 (UTC)
It identifies areas students in the course are invited to participate in documenting. It references Wikibooks as a resource: http://econwiki.lse.ac.uk/wiki/The_textbook
Its license is a creative commons sharealike (link on front page http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/) that would seem to preclude direct cut and paste interaction between its material and Wikibooks or Wikiversity. Obviously paraphrasing or cross checking facts remains legal.
  • http://communitiesofinquiry.com/ A breakdown of issues, pedagogies and methodologies relevant to creating, developing and researching online learning communities - based on Rourke et al. (2001)

We are not sure...[edit]

What all the possible learning modes, methods, preferences, factors, etc. are using wikis with other online and physical world resources are or may be. It would be extremely helpful to our Wikiversity:Research Network and the Wikiversity:School of Education if you share your thoughts, observations, wild ass guess (WAG), opinions or hearsay regarding how wikis and other resources can be used to aid and inspire useful, civilly responsible learning either directly or indirectly.

This is an interesting link [8] with a table that discusses how overlapping groups influence each other and propagate information over networks. Has some interesting implications for how Wikipedia, Wikiversity and other large global focal points might need to organize for effectiveness. user:lazyquasar

References[edit]

  • Boud, D. (2000) Sustainable Assessment: rethinking assessment for the learning society, Studies in Continuing Education, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp:151 - 167
  • Keppell, M., Au, E., Ma, A., Chan, C. (2006) Peer learning and learning-oriented assessment in technology-enhanced environments, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education Vol. 31, No. 4, pp: 453–464
  • Lave, J., Wenger, E. (1991) Situated learning: legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  • Rourke, L., Anderson, T., Garrison, D.R., Archer, W. (2001) Assessing social presence in asynchronous text-based computer conferencing. Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 14, No. 2. Available online at: http://cade.icaap.org/vol14.2/rourke_et_al.html

Further reading[edit]

  • Dewey, J. (1966) Democracy and education. New York: Free Press. Originally published in 1916
  • Wenger, E. (1998) Communities of practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

See also[edit]

  • Learning goals - Wikiversity learners share their goals with the community.