User:John Bessa/GO: group outcomes

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This "wikified lesson" is written for post-patient recovery. As such, everything in it can be viewed in terms of successful adaption through the group process by patients who have been emancipated from institutions, or, conversely, unfortunate maladaption. It is not, however, about group psychology, as nearly everything in it has been gleaned from group organizational resources that hope to help improve work productivity. As such, the structure here should apply in nearly any group environment.

The "thinking" that had previously been done on behalf of the emancipated patients by others, such as health-care aides, now needs to be done by the group members as individuals. As you will see, however, there are no individuals in the emerging group context. Also within this paradox is the challenge for the helper to "let go," to be a facilitator, and to trust in the natural interrelation system, which is empathy.

Keywords: group, emergent, distal, proximal, task, process, relationship

Note: this document is also available for printing (and corporate distribution) in ms word doc format: GO_Group_outcomes.docx

Group outcomes[edit]

Group outcomes depend on individuals' satisfaction and commitment to stay resulting from group efficacy in the proximal dimension, where success, or agency, is currently described as group emergence

  1. Task interrelation
  2. Proximal emergence
  3. Distal agency

Important to emergence is the health of group members' relationships so as to mediate the group's processes and thus beneficial group outcomes

Dimensions (states)[edit]

  • emergent
    • efficacy
  • proximal
    • task
    • process
    • relationships
  • distal
    • agency

Emergent dimension (group dynamism)[edit]

  • personal satisfaction
    • commitment
  • motivation
  • trust
  • interrelation
    • understanding
  • distal outcomes (agency)

Emergent task mediated by group values[edit]

Interdependence beyond structure

    • unspecified
    • open
      • suggests that friendships help outcomes


  • high-quality interpersonal relations
  • extensive learning from each other
  • shared responsibility for performance outcomes

What emergence is not

  • independent
  • no close interaction

Low emergence characteristics

  • no shared activity
  • unharmonious
  • Learning from others is rare
  • Individuals are motivated to self-develop expertise to impress others
    • skills
    • knowledge

Individual paradox

  • Group emergence is often defined in terms of emerging leadership
    • how an individual can exploit outcomes by destroying group values (Lewis Mumford)

Proximal (state)[edit]

Proximal emergent states are based on relationships

  • intragroup trust
  • group cohesion

Viability (as measured individually)

  • satisfaction
  • commitment
  • identification
  • organizational citizenship
  • positive affect

Performance (links to distal state)

  • innovativeness
  • decision quality
  • efficacy
  • effectivness

Proximal functions[edit]

  • task
  • process
  • relationship


The action of emergence is described in terms of the emergent task

Task types[edit]

Creativity tasks, which require

  • idea generation,
  • innovation, research, and/or
  • development of new ideas

Decision-making (emergence leadership)

  • develop direction
  • without known path

Project tasks

  • problem solving
  • generating plans

Activity tasks

  • routine
    • physical
    • intellectual
  • quality standards

Process (activity, existential)[edit]

  • creating better life outcomes (making change happen) in small steps as part of tasks
  • process experiences in the context of community to prevent isolation (and thus depression)
    • open processes (allowing and embracing new members)
    • processing in the context of the group's values

as a group task

  • meaning
  • definition
  • tangible outcome

achieved through

  • social interrelation
  • learning

Process mediation (facilitation)[edit]

  • help a process move along

Mediation questions

  • what mediates the processes?
  • what is the purpose of the group?
  • what processes (activities) achieve the purpose?

Group process mediates conflict[edit]


  • in-groups -- sub-groups within the super-set group (organization)
  • no external out-groups, so the super-set may be named as an out-group
    • marginalizing the central organization from group membership
    • if factions develop (through relationships) out-groups may be named
      • suggests where friendships may be damage outcomes


  • isolation
  • self-development (to impress others)
  • marginalization

Distal process[edit]

Activity assurance[edit]

  • effort
    • planned
    • actual
  • value proportion
    • benefits
      • budget
    • compliance
      • emergent values



  • friendships
  • resources
  • labor
  • status hierarchies


    • self-disclosure
    • similarity
    • emotions
    • activity types



  • we-ness
    • open or closed to new members

Out-group as viewed by in-group

  • no identification with other group (thought may be same)
    • fear creates conflict

Friendship relationships

  • least exclusive
  • partnership style similarities
    • communication
      • roles
      • labor
    • resources
    • activity styles

Distal (state)[edit]

  • perceptions of the group from others
    • production
    • quality
    • values

Conflict (proximal)[edit]

Large negative effects

  • proximal
  • distal
  • exception: certain tasks at certain times

Poorest conflict outcomes

  • process
  • relationship

Conflict paradox[edit]

  • potential to benefit a broad variety of group outcomes
  • impairs both proximal and distal group outcomes

Task conflict surrounds the task[edit]

  • content,
  • opinions
  • ideas

can help

  • start
  • preparation
  • choices of actions

as proximal evaluations of

  • processes
  • tasks
  • resources
  • standards

Counterproductive when tasks are

  • well-understood
  • straightforward

Task conflict[edit]

Arises with assignments

  • task below expertise
  • personal insult

Task conflict has fewer

  • negative emotions
  • personal connotations
  • not necessarily disruptive for group outcomes
  • often indicates success (respect others' POV)

Process conflict[edit]

Conflict and self-verification theory

Challenges are interpreted as negative assessments

  • dissatisfaction
  • stress
  • rumination
    • maintaining depression

Might improve group outcomes

  • who


  • what?


  • how things are done

Relationship conflicts[edit]

  • proximal and unmanageable,
  • tend to destroy emergence outcome

Resulting from

  • defensible threat (historically called ego)
  • hostility
  • intentions to leave

Lost are

  • identification
  • trust
  • member commitment

Relationship paradox

  • Friendships/partnerships are least exclusive
    • mediate openness
  • Form factions
    • mediate in-group/out-group conflict
      • organizational level


found using the keywords for searches from the keywords: group, emergent, distal, proximal, task, relationship, process


Developmental Psychopathology, Risk, Disorder, and Adaptation by Dante Cicchetti and Donald J. Cohen

During the childhood years, early relationships with primary caregivers affect several emerging psychological attributes and influence the negotiation of major developmental tasks; resolution of these tasks, in turn, ... On the positive side, strong relationships with those in one's proximal circle serve vital protective processes, for children as well as adults. ... factors that (in addition to the universals, such as warmth and discipline) are especially salient in particular ethnic minority groups.


The Regulation of Emotion by Pierre Philippot, Robert Stephen Feldman

At the group level, it is necessary to distinguish one's ingroup from the outgroup for the purposes of coalition forming and resource distribution. ... In particular, positive emotions serve informative functions relevant to this relationship task. ... roles (e.g., teacher-student or coworker), emotions are one important proximal mechanism by which this task is completed. ... During this process, emergent properties of the relationship itself are developed — qualities not of the individuals, but the group itself.


Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning by Sanna Järvelä

The interaction unfolds presumably within the novice's zone of proximal development, namely with one of the ... theory that views thinking as a socially distributed process, with knowledge emerging form the language-mediated collaborative ... length of the task required to be done together, a parameter that affects the degree of involvement and relationship within the group.

Cultural preservation of/for the aging[edit]

Handbook of Adulthood and Aging by Susan Krauss Whitbourne and Martin Sliwinski

It is a process in which groups or organizations are guided towards preservation of culture or traditions. ... is taken up in two quite different ways: initially in terms of proximal family issues, and later in terms of other distal social roles. ... The period of emerging adulthood is distinct in five ways: It is an age of increased identity explorations and instability, ... is not linear, and that the process of identity formation and consolidation is a lifelong task.


Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation by Joel Stein

These processes are thought to represent the synaptic mechanisms responsible for learning and memory. ... The first study to directly examine this relationship used varying behaviorally demanding tasks to selectively activate specific ... These movements consisted of simultaneous executions of digit and wrist, or proximal movements at low ICMS thresholds, and ... the syndactyly, the new multi-digit representations appear as an emergent property of the plastic somatosensory cortex.

And even political[edit]

Politics in Organizations by Gerald R. Ferris, Darren C. Treadway

Emergent states can be considered both as team inputs and proximal outcomes. as inputs, emergent states may affect different team-level processes such as the political behaviors of team members. as an example of an emergent state and its relationship ... in the group” and was claimed to consist of three facets (i.e., member attraction,group activities or task commitment) and prestige or group pride.