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維基學院方針
研究

研究指引
研究範圍
研究審查委員會


維基學院成員可參與學術原創研究活動以助推展維基學院之教育使命。維基學院的研究範圍僅限於有助推動學習與維基媒體基金會使命者。為鼓勵優秀研究,維基學院研究政策強調兩點:可驗與道義。維基學院之原創研究受同行評審所規,以達致可驗。維基學院研究參與者必須遵守學術研究道義

維基學院上之研究活動包括學術上之次生研究(文獻回顧)與牽涉其他適合維基社群之方法之原始研究,如研究一些維基社群本身之動態。所有研究活動必須透明,且其方法須足以受同儕評審及他人之獨立驗證

一些維基學院的研究計劃會緊從維基媒體之中性觀點政策;然而,一些不會。吾人要求任何維基學府研究活動均基於引可靠之源誠信宣示可能出現之利益衝突。研究計劃之同儕評審由社羣全體分擔。有人提議設立評議會以引領評審。評議會由社群選出,是一組有專長之維基學者。評議員利用其專業知識與經驗協助引導社羣辨認與處理不良之研究行為。

維基學院中研究活動之總體目標乃助大家學習如何做好研究。另一長期目標為探索一種可能:建立研究員社羣,以支援正式之同儕評審過程,以實現研究結果之「維基出版」。或有一日維基研究社群能夠協助出版經同儕評審之研究報告,足以作為維基媒體各計劃────如維基百科、維基書────之可靠來源

研究範圍[edit]

研究範圍之政策頁

維基學員參與多種學術原創研究活動。已有知識之學術評審(或曰「次生研究」,或 「文獻回顧」)乃維基學院許多教學活動之構成部份。研究過程中之批判思維────即使在文獻回顧中────可引致原始之研究結果。維基學府鼓勵培飬合符其使命、在其範圍內之此等研究。

研究與中立[edit]

為支持學術自由,維基學院容許參與者超出維基媒體基金會之一般中立觀點(NPOV)政策之限。此措施讓學者深入探究有限之觀點────即使於傳統學術科目之外────惟彼必須公開宣示其偏見,且謹從高度學術道義

原創研究範圍[edit]

有些研究不符維基學院之使命與格式。下列為出乎維基學府教育使命、或能力之數例:

  • 「市場調查」────推廣特定商品或政治候選人或任何目標在維基媒體敎育使命以外的研究;
  • 抵觸維基媒體基金會政策────如隱私政策────之研究計劃;
  • 非法或不合道德之研究計劃;
  • 須受IRB人體試驗委員會正式審批之研究計劃(例外者:若一計劃包括維基學府中之活動,先已被現存之現實研究機構IRB評審批准,且其所有活動均公開而遵從IRB批准之協定)。

可驗[edit]

維基學院中所有研究活動與方法必須公開、透明,以助他人獨立客觀檢驗。各研究計劃須詳盡紀錄其動機、假設與方法(見 宣示)。行進中之研究計劃須用模標明。研究模板將插該研究頁入「研究」類。

誠信[edit]

研究結果不可為符合成見或已提出之假說而隨意更修、偽作、遺漏; 不可以令人誤解之方式表示。

透明[edit]

研究報告須表明:1) 在研究過程每一步做了甚麼、為何這樣做;2) 如何由所得資料推出斷言、(與為何)。則其他人有機會細察此研究工作以判別其質素。全部資料公開是最理想的。當不能公開全部資料(如因道義問題)時,亦可因應情況需要供給個別參與者。

客觀[edit]

維基學院研究者須盡力以容許其他研究員獨立測試與檢證之方式執行並報告其研究結果。

維基學院中之研究計劃均須以獲得客觀可驗結果為目標。研究者應時刻尊重其資料分析所示之結果,不可操控扭曲其數據以配合預定之期望結果。若一假設被提出,研究/調查結果可驗證或否定之。不應只以證實自己正確或别人錯誤為研究目標────應常以全方位批判研究過程,包括研究員本身。

主觀[edit]

個人主觀可以是一研究計劃之重要甚至是關鍵部分;但任何主觀須標明,亦應盡可能併合其他觀點,引出版物以支持議論脈胳與求知路徑。你可自由表達其觀點與態度────若你能學術嚴慬底聯繫其到適當原始或次生數據。

中立[edit]

一般情況下,維基學院中之研究均公開,任何社群成員都可參與,其維基頁均可據維基媒體之中立觀點(NPOV)政策編輯。然而,有些知識與理解的進展涉及探索現有知識、信仰與想法之常規模式以外之新意念,維基學院容許研究員探索各種觀點,惟彼須緊守最高度之學者道義。若無宣明,則預設NPOV政策適用。

維基學院作為一維基,任何人都可修改任一頁。他人或會基於你的結果提供不同的分析,或而抵觸你的結論。這是值得鼓勵的,維基學院支持公開的研究。若你決定限制你的研究計劃,只讓某些人修改,你要接受其他人會寫出你的計劃的分枝,以合中立觀點(NPOV)政策。若你在NPOV政策外修改維基學院網頁,你要接受同儕的批評。若你的方法離開了研究指引,你或會被要求更改取材、方法,否則你的材料或會被刪。若你重覆忽略同儕的善意建議,且維基有所共識,你或會被禁。

觀點宣示[edit]

若你希望在中立政策以外研究,或希望限制編輯你的工作的人,你必須公開宣示你的觀點、可能出現之利益衝突;研究目標亦須公開。公開你的個人觀點/偏見可助他人理解你的觀點,亦更可能信任你。在中立觀點政策以外的工作要求作者遵守最高度的學術道義,而其研究方法與工作習慣將受同儕批判與評審。

Declare your known biases or any potential conflicts of interest at the start of your research project. This fosters trust, and helps the community to judge the study from your point of view. This will join you in a group effort to raise conscientiousness and group-assisted introspection.

引源[edit]

No research activities are excused from the need to be aware of existing relevant knowledge and past published research results. Carefully cite relevant sources wherever possible, in both secondary research (literature reviews) and as an integral part of the conduct and reporting of any original research activities.

It is not always possible to justify and contextualize original research using previously published sources, especially when the topic has not been examined in depth before. Wikiversity is open to scholarly research that tries to stretch the boundaries of knowledge. Where possible, you should cite relevant sources of previously published research in your field of study that most closely relate to any new paths of exploration you may be involved with. Secondary research should always be based on verifiable sources, and should always cite all the sources used in your research.

道義[edit]

  • 所有研究活動須遵從高度學術操守
  • A project that breaks or tests conventional ethical guidelines is not permitted
  • A project that would require oversight by an expert in research ethics or IRB is not permitted
  • Wikiversity's Review Board is responsible for examining the conduct and methods of all research projects

All research posted on Wikiversity should be conducted in an ethical manner. Wikiversity cannot permit studies that involve such ethical issues as harm (including distress or embarrassment), deception or risk to either human subjects or animals. No studies may be posted that involve a breach in local or international law.

Research projects that would normally require approval from an institutional review board (IRB) cannot be permitted on Wikiversity. However, if an established IRB approves your research, the Wikiversity Review Board may permit it.

維基學院 is devoted to a search for knowledge and providing a support system to help people learn about the world. Wikiversity promotes adherence to scholarly ethics that keep Wikiversity free from propaganda, deception and intellectual dishonesty such as plagiarism. Wikiversity does not exist as a platform to support advocates of particular political movements, religious ideologies or scientific, legal or historical theories. Wikiversity can contain scholarly study of all topics, but Wikiversity does not exist for the purpose of advocating or advancing particular points of view, movements or belief systems.

維基學院 participants who engage in research activities must not attempt to use Wikiversity as a platform for advocating or advancing propaganda or any other type of deception or intellectual dishonesty, but rather, Wikiversity editors must remain devoted to scholarly consideration of their topic of study. This means not distorting or hiding evidence and not crafting illegal, deceptive, dishonest or otherwise unethical accounts of facts or ideas. Wikiversity scholars can, and must, study their subjects with devotion to honesty and the highest scholarly standards.

維基學院 standards for scholarly and ethical research practices are enforced by peer review. Most of this peer review is possible through conventional wiki community interactions and webpage editing. However, some forms of bogus and unethical research can only be recognized by experts. In order to protect itself from such problems, the Wikiversity community depends on the participation of experts who can guide the whole community in recognizing bogus and unethical research practices, as discussed in the next section.

評議[edit]

維基學院's review process of research is distributed and community-led, taking the following steps:

  1. People add research to Wikiversity - they are encouraged to flag it appropriately as "research".
  2. If not done already, research is flagged with a template placed at the top of the page.
  3. If anyone reviewing (i.e. simply reading) the page finds something within the research to be questionable on methodological, ethical, epistemological grounds, they can add an appropriate template - or modify the existing one.
  4. The page(s) in question can be flagged for deletion - or a request for comments can be made
  5. After discussion and review, the research can be either modified, deleted, or sent for further review by the Review Board (details below).

評議會[edit]

See the full Review Board policy

Some misguided and deceptive research practices may be difficult to detect. The Wikiversity community relies on the participation of people with expertise in good research practices and who can help the community recognize and correct bogus and unethical research practices. The Review Board will be active in guiding the entire Wikiversity community in examination of all Wikiversity research projects and identifying and correcting any problems that breach the Wikiversity research guidelines.

小Wikiversity計劃上之研究活動[edit]

Wiki websites with few participants might have difficulty patrolling for vandalism and edits that violate the Wikiversity research guidelines. Wikiversity sites with few participants may not have a large enough community to support a Research Review Board. It may be wise for communities without an active Review Board to adopt a conventional Wikimedia Foundation No Original Research policy.

「邊沿」研究活動[edit]

Another obvious concern is how will we deal with fringe groups (eg. Nazis etc) who want to use Wikiversity as a publishing house. The Review Board will guide to community in making sure that all research projects, including fringe research, are conducted according to scholarly research methods as described in the Wikiversity research guidelines. At times, it may be useful to amend the Wikiversity research guidelines so as to explicitly exclude some types of fringe research if they disrupt Wikiversity or distract the community from its educational mission.

發展維基出版[edit]

維基學院 does not yet have a system for formal peer reviewed publishing. For Wikiversity research projects there may not necessarily be a final published research report for any given piece of research. Not every research contribution found on Wikiversity is accurate or verifiable. However, the purpose of research activities at Wikiversity is to promote learning, so we do not disregard inept research efforts - rather, we discuss, correct and build upon them. After a research project is complete, a summary report may be posted on a Wikiversity page. The raw data and the research report can be protected from further editing and remain as an historical archive. A goal of Wikiversity is to establish communities of scholars who can perform formal peer review of such research reports. Until such a system for peer reviewed "wiki publishing" can be established, Wikiversity participants should consider publishing original research in established journals. The Review Board might eventually evolve into a robust collection of experts who can support a formal peer review process.

參閱[edit]